Choksi, P., D. Singh, J. Singh, P. Mondal, H. Nagendra, J. Urpelainen, and R. DeFries (2021) Sensitivity of seasonal migration to climatic variability in Central India. Environmental Research Letters. 16: 064074.

Khanwilkar, S., C. Gould, R. DeFries, B. Habib, and J. Urpelainen (2021) Firewood, forests, and fringe populations: Exploring the inequitable socioeconomic dimensions of liquified petroleum gas (LPG) adoption in India. Energy Research and Social Science 75, no. 1021012 : 1-13.

Mondal, P., R. DeFries, J. Clark, J. Fanzo, N. Flowerhill, Md. Arif, A. Harou, S. Downs, and J. Fanzo (2021) Multiple cropping alone does not improve year-round food security among smallholders in rural India. Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 6 (2021): 065017.

Jain, M., R. Fishman, P. Mondal, G. Galford, N. Bhattarai, S. Naeem, U. Lall, B. Singh, and R. DeFries (2021) Groundwater depletion will decrease cropping intensity in India. Science Advances 7, no. 9.

Clark, B., R. DeFries, and J. Krishnaswamy (2021) India’s commitments to increase tree and forest cover: Consequences for water supply and agriculture production within the Central Indian Highlands. Water 13: 959.

Heilpern, S., K. Fiorella, C. Canas, A. Flecker, L. Moya, S. Naeem, S. Sethi, and R. DeFries (2021) Substitution of inland fisheries with aquaculture and chicken undermines human nutrition in the Peruvian Amazon.” Nature Food 2:192-197.

Heilpern, S., R. DeFries, K. Fiorella, A. Flecker, S. Sethi, M. Uriarte, and S. Naeem (2021) Declining diversity of wild-caught species pits dietary nutrient supplies at risk. Science Advances 7, no. 22 (2021): eabf9967.

Singh, S., A. Jones, R. DeFries, and M. Jain (2020) The association between crop and income diversity and farmer intra-household dietary diversity in IndiaFood Security: 1-22.

Neelakantan, A., R. DeFries, E. Sterling, and S. Naeem (2020) Contributions of financial, social and natural capital to food security around Kanha National ParkRegional Environmental Change 20 (26).

DeFries, R., M. Agarwala, S. Baquie, P. Choksi, N. Dogra, G.S. Preetha, S. Khanwilkar, et al (2020) Post-Lockdown spread of Covid-19 from cities to vulnerable forest-fringe villages in Central India. Current Science 00113891, no. 119.1.

Davis, K., A. Chhatre, N. Rao, D. Singh, S. Ghosh-Jerath, M. Poblete-Caenave, N. Pradhan, and R. DeFries (2019) Assessing the sustainability of post-Green Revolution cereals in IndiaProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences:1-8.

Davis, K., A. Chhatre, N. Rao, D. Singh, and R. DeFries (2019) Sensitivity of grain yields to historical climate variability in IndiaEnvironmental Research Letters 14:064013.

Smith, M., R. DeFries, A. Chhatre, S. Ghosh-Jerath, and S. Myers (2019) Inadequate zinc intake in India: Past, present, and futureFood and Nutrition Bulletin 40 (1):26-40.

DeFries, R., Chattre, A., Davis, K., Dutta, A., Fanzo, J., Ghosh-Jerath, S., Myers, S., Smith, M. (2018) Impact of historical changes in coarse cereals consumption in India on micronutrient intake and anemia prevalence. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 39 : 3, 377-392.

Davis, K., Chiarelli, D., Chhatre, A., Richter, B., Singh, D., DeFries, R. (2018)  Alternative cereals can improve water use and nutrient supply in India. Science Advances 4, 1-11.

Rao, N., Min, J., DeFries, R., Ghosh-Jerath, S., Valin, H., Fanzo, J.  (2018)  Healthy, affordable and climate-friendly diets in India. Global Environmental Change 49, 154-165.

Wood, S., Smith, M., Fanzo, J., Remans, R., DeFries, R. (2018) Trade and the equitability of global food nutrient distribution. Nature Sustainability 1, 34-37.

DeFries, R. (2018) Trade-offs and synergies among resilience, human nutrition, and agricultural productivity of cereals – what are the implications for the agricultural research agenda? prepared for Science Forum, Oct 10-12 October 2018, Stellenbosch, South Africa, CGIAR.



Jayadevan, A., R. Nayak, K. Karanth, J. Krishnaswamy, R. DeFries, U.K. Karanth, and S. Vaidyanathan (2020) Navigating paved paradise: Evaluating landscape permeability to movement for large mammals in two conservation priority landscapes in India. Biological Conservation 247: 1908613.

Nayak, R., K. Karanth, T. Dutta, R. DeFries, U.K. Karanth, and S. Vaidyanathan (2020) Bits and pieces: Impact of linear institutions on forest structural connectivity in India. Land Use Policy 99: 104619.

Osuri, A., S. Machado, J. Ratnam, M. Sankaram, N. Ayyappan, S. Muthuramkumar, N. Parthasrathy, et al (2020) Tree diversity and carbon storage co-benefits in tropical human-dominated landscapes. Conservation Letters e12699.

Osuri, A., A. Gopal, T.R.Shankar Raman, R. DeFries, S. Cook-Patton, and S. Naeem (2020) Greater stability of carbon capture in species-rich natural forests compared to species-poor plantation.  Environmental Research Letters 15:034011.

Neelakantan, A., R. DeFries, and K. Ramesh (2019) Resettlement ad landscape-level conservation: Corridors, human-wildlife conflict and forest use in central India. Biological Conservation 232:142-151.

Agarwala, M., R. DeFries, Y.V. Jhala, and Q. Qureshi (2019) Threats to coexistence of humans and forests in Central India. In Nature Conservation in the New Economy, edited by G. Shahabuddin and K. Sivaramakrishnan, 108-134. New Delhi, India: Orient BlackSwan.

Velho, N., DeFries, R., Tolonen, A., Srinivasan, U., Patil, A.  (2019) Aligning conservation efforts with resource use around protected areas. Ambio. 48: 160–171

Dutta, T., Sharma, S., DeFries, R. (2018) Targeting restoration sites to improve connectivity in a tiger conservation landscape in India. PeerJ:e5587 DOI 10.7717/peerj.5587.

Agarwala, M., S. Ghoshal, L. Verchot, C. Martius, R. Ahuja and R. DeFries (2017) Impact of biogas interventions on forest biomass and regeneration in southern India. Global Ecology and Conservation, 11, 213-223.



DeFries, R., M. Agarwala, S. Baquie, P. Choksi, S. Khanwilkar, P. Mondal, H. Nagendra, and J. Urpelainen (2021) Improved household living standards can restore dry tropical forests. Biotropica. 181:106887.

Baquie, S., J. Urpelainen, S. Khanwilkar, C. Galletti, N. Velho, P. Mondal, H. Nagendra, and R. DeFries (2020) Migration, assets, and forest degradation in a tropical deciduous forest of South Asia. Ecological Economics 106887.

Schwartz, N., M. Uriate, R. DeFries, V. Gutierrez-Velex and M. Pinedo-Vasquez (2017) Land-use dynamics influence estimates of carbon sequestration potential in tropical second-growth forest. Environmental Research Letters, 12, 074023.

Schwartz, N., M. Uriarte, R. DeFries, K. Bedka, K. Fernandes, V. Gutierrez-Velez and M. Pinedo-Vasquez (2017) Fragmentation increases wind disturbance impacts on forest structure and carbon stocks in a western Amazonian landscape. Ecological Applications, 1-15.


Liu, T., L. Mickley, M. Marlier, R. DeFries, M. Firoz Khan, M.T. Latif, and A. Karambelas (2020) Diagnosing spatial biases and uncertainties in global fire emissions inventories: Indonesia as regional case study. Remote Sensing of Environment 237: 111557.

Liu, T., L. Mickley, S. Singh, M. Jain, R. DeFries, and M. Marlier (2020) Crop residue burning practices across North India inferred from household survey data: bridging gaps in satellite observations. Atmospheric Environment 8, no. 100091.

Marlier, M., T. Liu, K. Yu, J. Buonocore, S. Koplitz, R. DeFries, L. Mickley, D. Jacob, J. Schwartz, B. Wardhana, and S. Myers. (2019) Fires, smoke exposure, and public health: An integrative framework to maximize health benefits from peatland restorationGeoHealth 3:178-189.

Liu, T., Marlier, M., Karambelas, A., Jain, M., Singh, S., Singh, M., Gautum, R., DeFries, R. (2019) Missing emissions from post-monsoon agricultural fires in northwestern India: regional limitation of MODIS burned area and active fire products. Environmental Research Communications 1.

Karambelas, A., Holloway, T., Kinney, P., Fiore, A., DeFries, R., Kiesweter, G., Chris, H. (2018) Urban vs rural health impacts attributable to PM2.5 and O3 in northern IndiaEnvironmental Research Letters 13, 064010.

Liu, T., M. Marlier, R. DeFries, D. Westervelt, K. Xia, A. Fiore, L. Mickley, D. Cusworth & G. Milly (2018) Seasonal impact of regional outdoor biomass burning on air pollution in three Indian cities: Delhi, Bengaluru and Pune. Atmospheric Environment, 172, 83-92.

Andela, N., D. Morton, L. Giglio, Y. Chen, G. Van der Werf, P. Kasabhatla, R. DeFries, G. J. Collatz, S. Hantson, S. Kloster, D. Bachelet, M. Forrest, G. Lasslop, F. Li, S. Mangeon, J. Melton, C. Yue & J. Randerson. 2017. A human-driven decline in global burned area. Science, 356, 1356-1362.


DeFries, R. (2021) Greening agri-food production in less-industrialized countries. In The Economics of Sustainable Food: Smart Policies for Health and the Planet, edited by N. Batini: Island Press.

Tambe, S., L. French, C. Wyborn, L. Scarlett, R. DeFries, H. Nagendra, H. Kulkarni, et al. (2021) India’s environmental policy standoff: Reimaging the interface of science, policy, and practice. International Forestry Review 23, no. 2: 1-11.

Lipper, L., R. DeFries, and L. Bizikova (2020) Shedding light on the evidence blind spots confounding the multiple objectives of SDG 2. Nature Plants 6 (2020): 1203-10.

DeFries, R., and A. Chhatre (2019) Why India needs a unique approach to sustainability.  Ecology, Economy and Society 2 (2):3-8.

DeFries, R., O. Edenhofer, A. Halliday, G. Heal, T. Lenton, M. Puma, J. Rising, Rockstrom. J., A. Ruane, H. Schellnhuber, D. Stainforth, N. Stern, M. Tedesco, and B. Ward (2019) The missing economic risks in assessments of climate change impacts. In Policy Insight: Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, The Earth Institute, The Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research.

Anderson, C., R. DeFries, R. Litterman, P.A. Matson, D. Nepstad, S.W. Pacala, W. Schlesinger, R. Shaw, P. Smith, C. Weber, and C. Field (2019) Natural climate solutions are not enough: Decarbonizing the economy must remain a critical priority. Science 363 (6430):933-934.

DeFries, R., J. Fanzo, P. Mondal, R. Remans and S. Wood (2017) Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals?: A review of the evidence. Environmental Research Letters, 12, 033001.

DeFries, R. & H. Nagendra (2017) Ecosystem management as a wicked problem. Science, 356, 265-270.

DeFries, R. (2017) Robust assessment comes of age. Nature Ecology and Evolution. 1:1222-1223.

DeFries, R. (2017) The tangled web of people, landscapes, and protected areas. In Science, Conservation, and National Parks, eds. S. Bessinger, D. Ackerly, H. Doremus & G. Machlis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


DeFries, R., Mondal, P., Singh, D., Agrawal, I., Fanzo, J., Remans, R., Wood, S. 2016. Synergies and trade-offs for sustainable agriculture: Nutritional yields and climate-resilience for cereal crops in central India. Global Food Security, 11: 44-53.

Mondal, P., Jain, M., Zukowski, M., Galford, G., DeFries, R. 2016. Quantifying fluctuations in winter cropped area in the Central Indian Highland landscape. Regional Environmental Change 16.

Clark, B., DeFries, R., Krishnaswamy, J. 2016. Intra-annual dynamics of water stress in the Central Indian Highlands from 2002 to 2012. Regional Environmental Change 16.

Agarwala, M., DeFries, R., Qureshi, Q., Jhala, Y. 2016. Factors associated with long-term species composition in dry tropical forests of Central India. Environmental Research Letters 11.

DeFries, R., Sharma, S., Dutta, T. 2016. A landscape approach to conservation and development in the Central Indian Highlands: Introduction to the Special Issue. Regional Environmental Change 16.

Fagan, M., R. DeFries, S. Sesnie, J. Arroyo & R. Chazdon. 2016.  Targeted reforestation could combat declines in connectivity for understory birds in a tropical habitat corridor.  Ecological Applications, 26, 1456-1474.

Agarwala, M., DeFries, R., Qureshi, Q., Jhala, Y. 2016. Changes in dry tropical forests in Central India with human use. Regional Environmental Change 16.

Cattau, M., Marlier, M., DeFries, R. 2016.  Effectiveness of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) for reducing fires on oil palm concession in Indonesia from 2012 to 2015. Environmental Research Letters 11.

Koplitz, S., Mickley, L., Marlier, M., Buoncare, J., Kim, P., Liu, T., Sulprizo, M., DeFries, R., Jacob, D., Schwartz, J., Pongsiri, M., Myers, S. 2016. Public health impacts of the severe haze in Equatorial Asia in September-October 2015: Demonstration of a new framework for informing fire management strategies to reduce downwind smoke exposure. Environmental Research Letters 11, 094023.

Cattau, M., Harrison, M., Shinyo, I., Tungau, S., Uriarte, M., DeFries, R. 2016. Sources of anthropogenic fire ignitions on the peat-swamp landscape in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Global Environmental Change 39, 205-219.

Jain, M., S. Naeem, B. Orlove, V. Modi, and R. DeFries. 2015. Understanding the causes and consequences of differential decision-making in adaptation research: adapting to a delayed monsoon onset in Gujarat, India. Global Environmental Change 31:98-109.

Fagan, M., R. DeFries, S. Sesnie, J. Arroyo-Mora, C. Soto, A. Singh, P. Townsend, and R. Chazdon. 2015. Mapping species composition of forests and tree plantations in northeastern Costa Rica with an integration of hyperspectral and multitemporal Landsat imageryRemote Sensing 7:5660-5696.

Dutta, T., Sharma, S., Roy, P., McRae, B., and DeFries, R. 2015. Connecting the dots: Connectivity mapping for tiger in central India.  Regional Environmental Change: 1-15.

Cattau, M. E., Husson, S., and Cheyne, S. M., 2015. Population status of the Bornean orang-utan, Pongo pygmaeus, in a vanishing forest, the former Mega Rice Project, IndonesiaOryx 49(3): 473-480.

DeFries, R., J. Fanzo, R. Remans, C. Palm, S. Wood, and T. Anderman. 2015. Metrics for land-scarce agriculture: Nutrient content must be better integrated into planning. Science 349:238-240.

Mondal, P., Jain, M., DeFries, R., Galford, G., and Small, C. 2015. Sensitivity of crop cover to climate variability: Insights from two Indian agro-ecoregionsJournal of Environmental Management 148:21-30.

Schwartz, N., Uriarte, M., Gutierrez, V., Baethgen, W., DeFries, R., Fernandes, K., Pinedo-Vasquez, M. 2015. Climate, landowner residency, and land cover predict local scale fire activity in the Western Amazon. Global Environmental Change:144-153.

Locatelli, B., Catterall, C. P., Imbach, P., Kumar, C., Lasco, R., Marín-Spiotta, E., Mercer, B., Powers, J. S., Schwartz, N. and Uriarte, M. 2015. Tropical reforestation and climate change: beyond carbon. Restoration Ecology, 23: 337–343.

Naeem, S., Ingram, J.C., Varga, A., Agardy, T., Barten, P., Bennett, G., Bloomgarden, E., Bremer, L., Burkill, P.,Cattau, M., et. al, 2015. Get the Science Right when Paying for Nature’s Services. Science. 347(6227): 1206-1207.

Marlier, M., R. DeFries, P. Kim, S. Koplitz, J. Daniel, L. Mickley, and S. Myers. 2015. Fire emissions and regional air quality impacts from fires in oil palm, timber, and logging concessions in Indonesia. Environmental Research Letters 10: 085005

Marlier, M., R. DeFries, P. Kim, D. Gaveau, S. Koplitz, D. Jacob, L. Mickley, B. Margono, and M. S. 2015. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Environmental Research Letters 10: 054010

Kim, P., D. Jacob, L. Mickley, S. Koplitz, M. Marlier, R. DeFries, S. Myers, B. Chew, and Y. Mao. 2015. Sensitivity of population smoke exposure to fire locations in Equatorial Asia. Atmospheric Environment 102:11-17.

Marlier, M., R. DeFries, D. Pennington, E. Nelson, E. Ordway, J. Lewis, S. Kolpitz, and L. Mickley. 2015. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Sumatra. Global Change Biology 21:345-362.

Mondal, P., M. Jain, A. W. Robertson, G. Galford, C. Small, and R. DeFries. 2014. Winter crop sensitivity to inter-annual climate variability in central IndiaClimatic Change 126:61-76.

Wood, S., A. Jina, M. Jain, P. Kristjanson, and R. DeFries. 2014. Smallholder farmer cropping decisions related to climate variability across multiple regions. Global Environmental Change 25:163-172.

Meyfroidt, P., K. Carlson, M. Fagan, V. Gutierrez-Velez, M. Macedo, L. M. Curran, R. DeFries, G. Dyer, H. Gibbs, E. Lambin, D. Morton, and V. Robiglio. 2014. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes. Environmental Research Letters 9:074012.

Gutierrez-Velez, V., M. Uriarte, R. DeFries, M. Pinedo-Vasquez, K. Fernandes, P. Ceccato, W. Baethgen, and C. Padoch. 2014. Land cover change interacts with drought severity to change fire regimes in Western Amazonia.Ecological Applications 24:1323-1340.

Remans, R., S. Wood, N. Saha, T. Anderman, and R. DeFries. 2014. Measuring nutritional diversity of national food supplies. Global Food Security 3:174-182.

Anderman, T., R. Remans, S. Wood, K. DeRosa, and R. DeFries. 2014. Synergies and tradeoffs between cash crop production and food security: a case study in rural Ghana. Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food 6:541-554.

Gaveau, D., M. Salim, K. Hergoualc’h, B. Locatelli, S. Sloan, M. Wooster, M. Marlier, E. Molidena, H. Yaem, R. DeFries, R. Nasi, L. Verchot, D. Murdiyarso, P. Holmgren, and S. D. 2014. An extreme fire event: haze and greenhouse gas emissions from Sumatra, Indonesia, during 2013 a non El Nino year. Scientific Reports 4:1-7.

Marlier, M., R. DeFries, A. Voulgarakos, P. Kinney, J. Randerson, D. Shindell, Y. Chen, and G. Faluvegi. 2013. El Nino and health risks from landscape fire emissions in Southeast Asia. Nature Climate Change 3:131-136.

Liu, J., V. Hull, M. Batistella, R. DeFries, T. Dietz, F. Fu, T. Hertel, R. Izaurralde, E. Lambin, S. Li, L. Martinelli, W. McConnell, E. F. Moran, R. Naylor, Z. Ouyang, K. Polenske, A. Reenburg, G. Rocha, C. Simmons, P. Verburg, P. M. Vitousek, F. Zhang, and C. Zhu. 2013. Framing sustainability in a telecoupled world.Ecology and Society 18:26.

DeFries, R., M. Herold, L. Verchot, M. Macedo, and Y. Shimabukuro. 2013. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: Harbinger or exception for other tropical forests? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368.

Fagan, M., R. DeFries, S. Sesnie, J. Arroyo, W. Walker, C. Soto, R. Chazdon, and A. Sanchun. 2013. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica. Environmental Research Letters 8:034017.

Brando, P., M. Coe, R. DeFries, and A. Azevedo. 2013. Ecology, economy and management of an agro-industrial frontier landscape in the southeast Amazon.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B368.

Yang, J., D. Morton, Y. Jin, G. J. Collatz, P. Kasibhatla, G. van der Werf, R. DeFries, and J. Randerson. 2013. Long-term trends and interannual variability of forest, savanna, and agricultural fires in South American fires. Carbon Management 4:617-638.

Morton, D., Y. Le Page, R. DeFries, G. J. Collatz, and G. C. Hurtt. 2013. Understory fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368:20120163.

Gutierrez-Velez, V. and R. DeFries. 2013. Annual multi-resolution detection of land cover conversion to oil palm in the Peruvian Amazon.Remote Sensing of Environment129:154-167.

Macedo, M., M. Coe, R. DeFries, M. Uriarte, P. Brando, C. Neill, and W. Walker. 2013. Land use-driven stream warming in southeastern Amazonia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368:20120153.

Karanth, K., L. Naughton-Treves, R. DeFries, and A. Gopalaswamy. 2013. Living with wildlife and mitigating conflicts around three protected areas.Environmental Management 52:1320-1332.

Jain, M., P. Mondal, R. DeFries, C. Small, and G. Galford. 2013. Mapping cropping intensity of smallholder farms: a comparison of methods using multiple sensors.Remote Sensing of Environment 134:210-223.

Jacobson, A. P. , Cattau, M. E., Riggio, J. S., Petracca, L. S., and Fedak, D.A., 2013. Distribution and abundance of lions in northwest Tete Province, Mozambique. Tropical ConservationScience 6(1): 87-107.

DeFries, R., E. C. Ellis, F. S. I. Chapin, P. A. Matson, B. L. Turner II, A. Agrawal, P. J. Crutzen, C. Field, P. Gleick, P. Kareiva, E. Lambin, D. Liverman, E. Ostrom, P. Sanchez, and J. Syvitski. 2012. Planetary opportunities: A social contract for global change science to contribute to a sustainable future. BioScience62:603-606.

Johnston, F., S. Henderson, Y. Chen, J. Randerson, M. Marlier, R. DeFries, P. Kinney, D. Bowman, and M. Brauer. 2012. Estimated global mortality attributable to smoke from landscape fires. Environmental Health Perspectives 120:695.

Uriarte, M., M. Pinedo-Vasquez, R. DeFries, K. Fernandes, V. Gutierrez-Velez, W. Baethgen, and C. Padoch. 2012. Depopulation of rural landscapes exacerbates fire activity in Western Amazon.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences109:21546-21550.

Macedo, M., R. DeFries, D. Morton, C. Stickler, G. Galford, and Y. Shimabukuro. 2012. Decoupling of deforestation and soy production in the southern Amazon during the late 2000s.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109:1841-1846.

Carpenter, S. R., et al. (DeFries one of ten authors).  2012. Program on ecosystem change and society: an intermational research strategy for integrated social-ecological systemsCurrent Opinion in Environmental Sustainability,4(1-5).

Davidson, E., et al. (DeFries one of 14 authors), 2012, The Amazon basin in transition,Nature,481, 321-328.

Karanth, K., A. Gopalaswamy, R. DeFries, and N. Ballal. 2012. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area. PLos One 7:e50433.

Karanth, K., R. DeFries, A. Srivathsa, and V. Sankaraman. 2012. Wildlife tourists in India’s emerging economy: Potential for a conservation constituency? Oryx 46:382-390.

Bowman, D., J. Balch, P. Artaxo, W. J. Bond, M. Cochran, C. D’Antonio, R. DeFries, F. Johnstaon, J. Keeley, M. Krawchuk, C. Kull, M. C. Mack, M. Moritz, S. Pyne, C. Roos, A. Scott, N. Sodhi, and T. Swetnam. 2011. The human dimension of fire regimes on Earth. Journal of Biogeography 1-14.

Karanth, K. and DeFries, R. 2011. Nature-based tourism in Indian protected areas: New challenges for park management. Conservation Letters 4:137-149.

Hansen, A., C. Davis, N. Pikielek, J. Gross, D. Theobald, S. Goetz, F. Melton, and R. DeFries. 2011. Delineating the ecosystems containing protected areas for monitoring and management.BioScience 61:363-373.

Morton, D., R. DeFries, J. Nagol, C. Souza, E. Kasischke, G. C. Hurtt, and R. Dubayah. 2011. Mapping canopy damage from understory fires in Amazon forests using annual time series of Landsat and MODIS data. Remote Sensing of Environment 115:1706-1720.

Gutierrez-Velez, V., R. DeFries, M. Pinedo-Vasquez, M. Uriarte, C. Padoch, W. Baethgen, K. Fernandes, and Y. Lim. 2011.  High-yield oil palm expansion spares land at the expense of forests in the Peruvian Amazon,Environmental Research Letters,6,044029.

Chen, Y., J. Randerson, D. Morton, R. DeFries, G. J. Collatz, P. Kasibhatla, L. Giglio, Y. Jin, and M. Marlier. 2011.  Fire season severity in South America using sea surface temperature anomalies, Science,334(6057), 787-791.

Fernandes, C., W. Baethgen, S. Bernardes, R. DeFries, D. DeWit, L. Goddard, W. Lavado, D. E. Lee, C. Padoch, M. Pinedo-Vasquez, and M. Uriarte. 2011. North Tropical Atlantic influence on western Amazon fire season variability. Geophysical Research Letters 38.

Yackulic, C., M. Fagan, M. Jain, A. Jina, Y. Lim, M. Marlier, R. Muscarella, P. Adame, R. DeFries, and M. Uriarte. 2011. Biophysical and socioeconomic factors associated with forest transitions at multiple spatial and temporal scales.Ecology and Society16 (3).

van der Werf, G., J. T. Randerson, L. Giglio, G. J. Collatz, M. Mu, P. Kasibhatla, D. Morton, R. DeFries, Y. Jin, and T. van Leeuwen. 2010. Global fire emissions and contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 10:16153-16230.

Karanth, K. and DeFries, R., 2010. Conservation and management in human-dominated landscapes: Case studies from India.Biological Conservation 143,12: 2865-2869.

Baker, J., G. Richards, Grainger, A., Gonzalez, P., Brown, S., DeFries, R., Held, A., Kellndorfer, J., Ndunda, P., Ojima, D., Skrovest, P., Souza, C. Jr., Stolle, F., 2010. Achieving forest carbon information with higher certainty: A five-part plan. Environmental Science and Policy 13,3: 249-260.

DeFries, R. and C. Rosenzweig, 2010. Toward a whole-landscape approach for sustainable land use in the tropics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107,46: 19627-19632.

Sachs, J., Remans, R., Smukler, S., Winowiecki, L., Andelman, S., Cassman, K., Castle, D., DeFries, R., Denning, G., Fanzo, J., Jackson, L., and R. Leemans, R., 2010. Monitoring the world’s agriculture. Naturedoi:10.1038/466558a.

Vina, A., M.-N. Tuanmu, et al., 2010. Range-wide analysis of wildlife habitat: Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 143: 1960-1969.

DeFries, R., Rudel, T.K., Uriarte, M., and Hansen, M., 2010. Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century.Nature Geoscience, 3, 178-181.

DeFries, R., and D. Pandey.  2010. Urbanization, the energy ladder and forest transitions in India’s emerging economy: Trade-offs and synergies for ecosystem services and human well-being.Land Use Policy. 27: 130-138.

Giglio, L., Randerson, J.T., Van der Werf, G., Kasibhatla, P., Collatz, G.J., Morton, D.,  and R. DeFries, 2010. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products.Biogeosciences Discussion7:1171-1186.

Zeigler, S., W. F. Fagan, DeFries, R., and B. Raboy, 2010. Identifying important forest patches for the long-term persistence of the endangered golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Tropical Conservation Science 3(1):63-77.

DeFries, R., Karanth, K., and Pareeth, S., 2010. Interactions between protected areas and their surroundings in human-dominated tropical landscapes.Biological Conservation, 143, 2870-2880.

Freedman, A. H., Buermann, W., Mitchard, E.T.A., DeFries, R.S., and T.B. Smith, 2010. Human impacts flatten rainforest-savanna gradient and reduce adaptive diversity. PLos One 5(9): e13088.

Rudel, T.K., Schneider, L., Uriarte, M., Turner II, B.L., DeFries, R., Lawrence, D., Geoghegan, J., Hecht, S., Ickowitz, A., Lambin, E., Birkenholtz, T., Baptista, S., and Grau, R., 2009. Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970-2005.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 20675-20680.

van der Werf, G., Morton, D., DeFries, R., Olivier, J., Kasibhatla, P., Jackson, R.B., Collatz, G.J., and Randerson, J.T., 2009. CO2 emissions from forest loss.Nature Geoscience. 2, 1-2.

Rudel, T. K., DeFries, R., Asner, G. and W. Laurance.  2009. Changing drivers of deforestation and new opportunities for conservation. Conservation Biology.23: 1396-1405.

Asner, G., Rudel, T., Aide, T.M, DeFries, R. and R. Emerson. 2009.  A contemporary assessment of global humid tropical forest change. Conservation Biology.23: 1386-1395.

Bowman, D., Balch, J., Artaxo, P., Bond, W.J., Carlson, J., Cochrane, M.A., D’Antonia, C., DeFries, R., Doyle, J., Harrison, S., Johnston, F.,Keeley, J., Krawchuk, M., Kull, C., Marston, J.B., Moritz, M., Prentice, I.C., Roos, C., Scott, A., Swetman, T.W., van der Werf, G.,and Pyne, S. 2009. Fire in the earth system.Science(324): 481-484.

DeFries, R., F. Rovero, P. C. Wright, J. Ahumada, S. J. Andelman, K. Brandon, J. Dempewolf, A. Hansen, J. Hewson, and J. Liu. 2009. From plot to landscape scale: Linking tropical biodiversity measurements across spatial scales.Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. doi:10.1890/080104.

Songer, M., Aung, M., Senior, B., DeFries, R., and Leimgruber, P. 2009. Spatial and temporal deforestation dynamics in protected and unprotected dry forests: a case study from Myanmar (Burma).Biodiversity Conservation (18): 1001-1018.

Carpenter, S., Mooney, H., Agard, J., Capistrano, D., DeFries, R., Diaz, S., Dietz, T., Duraiappah, A., Oteng-Yeboah,, A., Pererira, H., Perrings, C., Reid, W., Sarukhan, J., Scholes, R., Whyte, A. 2009. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science(106): 1305-1312.

van der Werf, G. R., J. Dempewolf, S. N. Trigg, J. T. Randerson, P. S. Kasibhatla, L. Giglio, D. Murdiyarso, W. Peters, D. Morton, G. J. Collatz, and R. DeFries. 2008. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.105(51): 20350-20355.

van der Werf, G. R., D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, L. Giglio, J. T. Randerson, G. J. Collatz and P. S. Kasibhatla. 2008. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modeling. Biogeosciences Discussion.5: 3533-3573.

DeFries, R., D. Morton, G. van der Werf, L. Giglio, G. J. Collatz, J. T. Randerson, J. T. Houghton, P. Kasibhatla, and Y. Shimabukuro. 2008.  Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in Southern Amazonia.Geophysical Research Letters. 35(L22705): doi:10.1029/2008GL035689.

DeFries, R. 2008. Terrestrial vegetation in the coupled human-earth system: Contributions of remote sensing. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33:369-390.

Morton, D., R. DeFries, J. T. Randerson, L. Giglio, W. Schroeder, and G. van der Werf. 2008. Agricultural intensification increases deforestation fire activity in Amazonia. Global Change Biology 14:2262-2276.

Hansen, M. C., S. V. Stehman, P. V. Potapov, T. Loveland, J. R. G. Townshend, R. DeFries, K. W. Pittman, B. Arunarwati, F. Stolle, M. K. Steininger, M. Carroll and C. DiMiceli 2008. Humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005 quantified using multi-temporal and multi-resolution remotely sensed data.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(27): 9439-9444.

Achard, F., R. DeFries, H. Eva, M. Hansen, P. Mayaux and H.-J. Stibig. 2007. Pan-tropical monitoring of deforestation.Environmental Research Letters 2: 045022.

DeFries, R., F. Achard, F. Brown, M. Herold, D. Murdiyarso, B. Schlamadinger and C. M. Souza. 2007. Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. Environmental Science and Policy. 10: 385-394.

DeFries, R., A. J. Hansen, B. L. Turner II, R. Reid and J. Liu. 2007. Land use change around protected areas: Management opportunities to balance human needs and ecological function. Ecological Applications. 17: 1031-1038.

Hansen, A. J. and R. DeFries. 2007. Ecological mechanisms linking nature reserves to surrounding lands. Ecological Applications. 17: 974-988.

Dempewolf, J., R. DeFries, S. N. Trigg and S. Eby.2007. MODIS derived burned area mapping of Serengeti-Mara region.IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters.4: 312-316.

Foley, J., G. P. Asner, M. A. Costa, M. Coe, R. DeFries, H. Gibbs, E. Howard, S. Olson, J. Patz, N. Ramankutty and P. Snyder. 2007. Amazonia revealed:  Unexpected forest degradation and the loss of ecosystem goods and services in the Amazon basin.Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 5 (1): 25-32.

Carpenter, S. R., R. DeFries, T. Dietz, H. A. Mooney, S. Polasky, W. V. Reid and R. J. Scholes. 2006. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Research needs. Science 313: 257-258.

DeFries, R., G. P. Asner and J. Foley. 2006. A glimpse out the window: What landscapes reveal about livelihoods, land use, and environmental consequences. Environment 48(8): 22-36.

Morton, D., R. DeFries, Y. Shimabukuro, L. Anderson, E. Arai, F. Espirito-Santo, R. Freitas and J. Morisette. 2006. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences103(39): 14637-14641.

Ramankutty, N., H. Gibbs, F. Achard, R. DeFries, J. Foley and R. A. Houghton. 2006. Challenges to estimating carbon emissions from tropical deforestation. Global Change Biology 12: 1-16.

Schimel, D., I. Y. Fung and R. DeFries. 2006. Space-based ecological observations: The NASA decadal survey. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(4): 171.

Nelson, G., E. Benett, A. Berhe, K. Cassman, R. DeFries, T. Dietz, A. P. Dobson, A. Doberman, A. C. Janetos, M. Levy, D. Marco, N. Nakicenovic, B. O’Neill, R. Norgaard, G. Petschel-Helf, D. Ojima, P. Pingali, R. Wateron and M. Zurek. 2006. Anthropogenic drivers of ecosystem change:  An overview. Ecology and Society 11(2): 29.

Brown de Colstoun, E., R. DeFries and J. Townshend. 2006. Evaluation of ISLSCP Initiative II satellite-based land cover data sets and assessment of progress in land cover data for global modeling.Journal of Geohphysical Research 111(D22S07).

Miles, L., A.C. Newton, R. DeFries, C. Ravilious, I. May, S. Blyth, V. Kapos, and J. Gordon, 2006: A global overview of the conservation status of tropical dry forests. Journal of Biogeography. 33: 491-505.

Pongratz, J., L. Bounoua, R. DeFries, D. Morton, L. Anderson and W. Mauser. 2006. Estimating the impact of land cover change on energy and water balance in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Earth Interactions, 10:1-17.

Foley, J., R. DeFries, G.P. Asner, C.G. Barford, G.B. Bonan, S.R. Carpenter, F.S.I. Chapin, M.T. Coe, G. Daily, H. Gibbs, J.H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E. Howard, C. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J. Patz, I.C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, and P.K. Snyder, 2005: Global consequences of land use. Science, 309: 570-574.

Anderson, L.O., Y.E. Shimabukuro, R.S. DeFries, and D. Morton, 2005: Assessment of land cover and land use changes in the Brazilian Amazon using multitemporal fraction images derived from Terra MODIS: Examples from the state of Mato Grosso. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2(3): 315-318.

Jasinski, E., D. Morton, R. DeFries, Y. Shimabukuro, L. Anderson, M. Hansen, and M. Latorre, 2005: Biophysical correlates of the expansion of mechanized agriculture in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Earth Interactions9 (16): 1-18.

Morton, D., R. DeFries, Y. Shimabukuro, L. Anderson, F. Espirito-Santo, M. Hansen, and M. Carroll, 2005: Rapid assessment of annual deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS data. Earth Interactions, 9(8): 1-22.

DeFries, R., Hansen, A.J., Newton, A.C. and Hansen, M.C., 2005. Increasing isolation of protected areas in tropical forests over the past twenty years. Ecological Applications, 15(1): 19-26.

Randerson, J.T., G.R. vanderWerf, G.J. Collatz, L. Giglio, C.J. Still, P. Kasibhatla, J.B. Miller, J.W.C. White, R. DeFries, and E.S. Kasischke, 2005: Fire emissions from C3 and C4 vegetation and their influence on interannual variability of atmospheric CO2 and d13CO2. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19 (GB2019).

Lepers, E., Lambin, E.F., Janetos, A.C., DeFries, R., Achard, F., Ramankutty, N. and Scholes, R.J., 2005. A synthesis of rapid land-cover change information for the 1981-2000 period. BioScience, 55(2): 115-124.

Hansen, M. and DeFries, R., 2004, Detecting long term forest change using continuous fields of tree cover maps from 8km AVHRR data for the years 1982-1999. Ecosystems. DOI 10.1007/s10021-004-0243-3.

DeFries, R. and Bounoua, L. 2004. Consequences of land use change for ecosystem services:  A future unlike the past. Geojournal, 61: 345-351.

DeFries, R., Foley, J. and Asner, G.P., 2004. Land Use Choices: Balancing Human Needs and Ecosystem Function. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2(5): 249-257.

Wessels, K.J., DeFries, R.S., Dempewolf, J., Anderson, L.O., Hansen, A.J., Powell, S. and Moran, E.F., 2004. Mapping regional land cover with MODIS data for biological conservation: Examples from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA and Para State, Brazil. Remote Sensing of Environment, 92: 67-83.

Imhoff, M., Bounoua, L., DeFries, R., Lawrence, W., Stutzer, D., Tucker, C.J. and Ricketts, T., 2004. The consequences of urban land transformation on net primary productivity in the United States. Remote Sensing of Environment, 89: 434-443.

DeFries, R. and Eshleman, K., 2004. Land use change and hydrologic processes: A major focus for the future (invited commentary). Hydrologic Processes Today, 18: 2183-2186.

Xue, Y., Juang, H.-M., Li, W.-P., Prince, S., DeFries, R., Jiao, Y. and Vasic, R., 2004. Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: Part I – East Asia and West Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 109(D03105): doi:10.1029/2003JD003556.

Zeng, X., Rao, P., DeFries, R. and Hansen, M., 2003. Interannual variability and decadal trend of global vegetation cover from 1982 to 2000. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 42: 1525-1530.

Hansen, M.C., DeFries, R.S., Townshend, J., Carroll, M., Dimiceli, C. and Sohlberg, R., 2003. Global percent tree cover at a spatial resolution of 500 meters: First results of the MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields algorithm. Earth Interactions, 7(10): 1-15.

Bounoua, L., DeFries, R.S., Imhoff, M.L. and Steininger, M.K., 2003. Land use and local climate: A case study near Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, DOI 10.1007/a00703-003-0616-8.

Still, C., Berry, J., Collatz, G. and DeFries, R., 2003, The global distribution of C3 and C4 plants:  Carbon cycle implications. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17: 6-1 – 6-14.

DeFries, R., Houghton, R.A., Hansen, M., Field, C., Skole, D.L. and Townshend, J.: 2002, Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 90s. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(22): 14256-14261.

Chan, J.W.-C., Laporte, N., and DeFries, R., 2003, Texture classification of logging using machine learning algorithms. International Journal of Remote Sensing 24: 1401-1407.

DeFries, R., Bounoua, L. and Collatz, G.J., 2002, Human modification of the landscape and surface climate in the next fifty years. Global Change Biology 8: 438-458.

DeFries, R., 2002, Past and future sensitivity of primary production to human modification of the landscape. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (7):36-1 – 36-4.

Bounoua, L., DeFries, R., Collatz, G.J., Sellers, P. and Khan, H., 2002, Effects of land cover conversion on surface climate. Climatic Change 52: 29-64.

Hansen, M., DeFries, R., Townshend, J.R.G., Marufu, L. and Sohlberg, R., 2002, Development of a MODIS tree cover validation data set for Western Province, Zambia. Remote Sensing of Environment, 83(1-2): 320-335.

Hansen, M.C., DeFries, R.S., Townshend, J.R.G., Sohlberg, R., DiMiceli, C. and Carroll, M., 2002, Towards an operational MODIS continuous field of percent tree cover algorithm: Examples using AVHRR and MODIS data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 83(1-2): 303-319.

Huang, C., Townshend, J., Liang, S., Kalluri, S., and DeFries, R., 2002, Impact of sensor’s point spread function on land cover characterization: Assessment and deconvolution. Remote Sensing of Environment, 80: 208-212.

Chan, J.C.-W., Huang, C. and DeFries, R., 2001, Enhanced algorithm performance for land cover classification using bootstrap aggregating (bagging). IEEE Transacations on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39 (3):693-695.

DeFries, R. and Chan, J., 2000,  Multiple criteria for evaluating machine learning algorithms for land cover classification from satellite data. Remote Sensing of Environment. 74:503-515.

DeFries, R. Hansen, M., Townshend, J.R.G., Janetos, A.C., and Loveland, T.R. 2000. A new global 1km data set of percent tree cover derived from remote sensing. Global Change Biology. 6: 247-254.

DeFries, R., Hansen, M., and Townshend, J., 2000, Global continuous fields of vegetation characteristics: A linear mixture model applied to multiyear 8km AVHRR data, International Journal of Remote Sensing.21: 1389-1414.

DeFries, R. and A.S. Belward, 2000, Global and regional land cover characterization from satellite data:  An introduction to the special issue, International Journal of Remote Sensing.21: 1083-1093.

Los, S.O., Sellers, P.J., Collatz, G.J., Malmstrom, C.M., DeFries, R.S., Tucker, C.J., Pollack, N.H., Dazlich, D.A., Bounoua, L., 2000, A global 9-year biophysical landsurface dataset from NOAA AVHRR data. Journal of Hydrometeorlogy.

Zeng, X., Dickinson, R., Walker, A., Shaikh, M., DeFries, R. and Qi, J. 2000. Derivation and evaluation of global 1-km fractional vegetation cover data for land modeling. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 39: 826-839.

Hansen, M., DeFries, R., Townshend, J. R. G. and Sohlberg, R., 2000, Global land cover classification at 1km resolution using a decision tree classifier, International Journal of Remote Sensing. 21: 1331-1365.

Zhan, X., DeFries, R., Townshend, J., Hansen, M., Huang, C. and Sohlberg, R., 2000, The global land cover change indicator product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer of NASA’s Earth Observing System, International Journal of Remote Sensing. 21: 1433-1460.

Townshend, J.R.G., Huang, C., Kalluri, S.N.V., DeFries, R. and Liang, S.: 2000, Beware of per-pixel characterization of land cover. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 21: 839-843.

DeFries, R., Field, C., Fung, I., Collatz, G. and Bounoua, L., 1999. Combining satellite data and biogeochemical models to estimate global effects of human-induced land cover change on carbon emissions and primary productivity, Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 13(3): 803-815.

DeFries, R., Townshend, J. R. G. and Hansen, M., 1999, Continuous fields of vegetation characteristics at the global scale at 1km resolution, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres. 104, 16,911-16,925.

DeFries, R. and Los, S., 1999. Implications of land cover misclassifications for parameter estimates in global land surface models:  An example from the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB2).  Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 65(9): 1083-1088.

DeFries, R. and Townshend, J., 1999, Global land cover characterization from satellite data: From research to operational implementation?, Global Ecology and Biogeography  Letters. 8 (5): 367-379.

DeFries, R., Hansen, M., Townshend, J. R. G. and Sohlberg, R., 1998, Global land cover classifications at 8 km spatial resolution: The use of training data derived from Landsat imagery in decision tree classifiers, International Journal of Remote Sensing; 19 (16): 3141-3168.

Justice, C., Vermote, E., Townshend, J., DeFries, R., Roy, D., Hall, D., Salomonson, V., Privette, J., Riggs, G., Strahler, A., Lucht, W., Myneni, R., Knyazikhin, Y., Running, S., Nemani, R., Wan, Z., Huete, A., van Leeuwan, W., Wolfe, R., Giglio, L., Muller, J.-P., Lewis, P. and Barnsley, M., 1998, The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS):  Land remote sensing for global change research, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 36,  1228-1249.

DeFries, R., Hansen, M., Steininger, M., Dubayah, R., Sohlberg, R. and Townshend, J., 1997, Subpixel forest cover in Central Africa from  multisensor, multitemporal data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 60,  228-246.

Smith, P., Kalluri, S., Prince, S. and DeFries, R., 1997, The NOAA/NASA Pathfinder AVHRR 8-km land data set, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 63, 12-31.

Hansen, M., Dubayah, R. and DeFries, R., 1996, Classification trees: An alternative to traditional land cover classifiers, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17, 1075-1081.

DeFries, R., Hansen, M. and Townshend, J., 1995, Global discrimination of land cover types from metrics derived from AVHRR Pathfinder data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 54, 209-222.

DeFries, R., Field, C. B., Fung, I., Justice, C. O., Matson, P. A., Matthews, M., Mooney, H. A., Potter, C. S., Prentice, K., Sellers, P. J., Townshend, J., Tucker, C. J., Ustin, S. L. and Vitousek, P. M., 1995, Mapping the land surface for global atmosphere-biosphere models: toward continuous distributions of vegetation’s functional properties, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 20,867-20,882.

DeFries, R. and Townshend, J. R. G., 1994, NDVI-derived land cover classification at global scales, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 15, 3567-3586.

DeFries, R., Farrington, J. and Weiss, E., 1985, SCOPE: Opportunities for international study of global environmental issues, The Environmental Professional, 7, 311-315.

Brush, G., Martin, E., DeFries, R. and Rice, C., 1982, Comparisons of lead-210 and pollen methods for determining rates of estuarine sediment accumulation, Quaternary Research, 18 (2) 196-217.

Brush, G. and DeFries, R., 1981, Spatial distributions of pollen in surface sediments of the Potomac Estuary, Limnology and Oceanography, 26 (2) 295-309.